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London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. Regional Ministry of Health, Juba, Sudan. Ministry of Health, Khartoum, Sudan. A large outbreak of haemorrhagic fever subsequently named Ebola Fever occurred in the Southern Sudan between June and November There was a total of cases; 67 in the source town of Nzara, in Maridi, three in Tembura, and one in Juba.
The outbreak in Nzara appears to have originated in the workers of a cotton factory. The disease in Maridi was amplified by transmission in a large, active hospital in that town.
The overall mortality rate was 53". Transmission of the disease required close contact with an acute case and was usually associated with the act of nursing a patient. The incubation period was between 7 and 14 days. Although the link was not well established, it appears that Nzara could have been the source of infection for a similar outbreak in the Bumba zone of Zaire. From Nzara, the disease spread to Tembura, Maridi, Juba, and Khartoum in the Sudan and also involved the Bumba zone of northern Zaire where a large outbreak followed.
Investigation of the outbreak in Sudan involved finding all of the cases and recording pertinent information. Several sources were used to find as many cases as Possible: 1 Hospital records, 2 visiting homes of patients and ferreting out other cases or their contacts, 3 searching house-to-house in the infected areas for additional cases, and 4 contacting local chiefs for information.
A case was defined as: 1 anyone having the symptoms of fever and headache lasting for at least two days with the addition of gastrointestinal symptoms diarrhea or vomiting or chest pain; or 2 diagnosed by a physician in a hospital. Using this definition, a total of cases occurred in Sudan between June and November, -- 67 in Nzara, in Maridi, three in Tembura, and one in Juba. The origin of the outbreak was Nzara, a small town with clusters of houses scattered in the dense woodlands bordering the African rain forest zone.